Johnson, Jackson and Vaughan

Human Computer:Katherine Johnson

American mathematician Katherine Johnson, “human computer” working at NACA, later NASA. Katherine Johnson. Katherine Johnson’s work at NASA’s Langley Research Center spanned 1953 to 1986 and included calculating the trajectory of the early space launches.

By NASA/Sean Smith – http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/news/researchernews/rn_kjohnson.html, Public Domain, source:(commons.wikimedia.org)

source:(public domain)

File:Katherine Johnson in 2008.jpg

Created: 26 August 2008 

Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson (born August 26, 1918) is a mathematician whose calculations of orbital mechanics as a NASA employee were critical to the success of the first and subsequently all U.S. manned spaceflights. During her 35-year career at NASA and its predecessor, she earned a reputation for mastering complex manual calculations and helped the space agency pioneer the use of computers to perform the tasks. Her work included calculating trajectories, launch windows and emergency return paths for Project Mercury spaceflights, including those of astronauts Alan Shepard, the first American in space, and John Glenn, the first American in orbit, and rendezvous paths for the Apollo lunar lander and command module on flights to the Moon. Her calculations were also essential to the beginning of the Space Shuttle Program, and she worked on plans for a mission to Mars. Her career as an African-American woman is also noted as trailblazing in the U.S. In 2015, President Barack Obama awarded Johnson the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Johnson’s story features in the non-fiction book Hidden Figures: The Story of the African-American Women Who Helped Win the Space Race (2016). She is one of the three protagonists in Hidden Figures, the film adaptation released the same year.

The highly acclaimed December 2016 film Hidden Figures, based on the non-fiction book of the same title by Margot Lee Shetterly, follows Johnson and other female African-American mathematicians (Mary Jackson and Dorothy Vaughan) who worked at NASA.

Katherine Johnson, NASA employee, mathematician and physicist, in 1966

By NASA; restored by Adam Cuerden – http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/thumbnails/image/1966-l-06717.jpeg, Public Domain, source:(commons.wikimedia.org)

NASA; restored by –  source:(nasa.gov)

Being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2015

Former NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson is seen after President Barack Obama presented her with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Tuesday, Nov. 24, 2015, during a ceremony in the East Room of the White House in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

Johnson’s computations have influenced every major space program from Mercury through the Shuttle program. Johnson was hired as a research mathematician at the Langley Research Center with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), the agency that preceded NASA, after they opened hiring to African-Americans and women. Johnson exhibited exceptional technical leadership and is known especially for her calculations of the 1961 trajectory for Alan Shepard’s flight (first American in space), the 1962 verification of the first flight calculation made by an electronic computer for John Glenn’s orbit (first American to orbit the earth), and the 1969 Apollo 11 trajectory to the moon. In her later NASA career, Johnson worked on the Space Shuttle program and the Earth Resources Satellite and encouraged students to pursue careers in science and technology fields.

NASA – source:(nasa.gov)

By NASA – https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/thumbnails/image/23178940342_d13d4aa5f6_o.jpg, Public Domain, source:(commons.wikimedia.org)

source:(public domain)

File:Katherine Johnson medal.jpeg

Created: 24 November 2015

DISCLAIMER: The male and female leadership biography information provided by Sir William Jackson Corporation (“we,” “us” or “our”) on (Sir William Jackson Mall) (www.sirwilliamjackson.com) (and our mobile application) is for general information purposes only. All leadership biography information on the Site (and our mobile application) is provided in good faith, however we make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, availability or completeness of any male or female leadership biography information on the Site (or our mobile application). Under no circumstance shall we have any liability to you for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site (or our mobile application) or reliance on any male or female leadership biography information provided on the site (and our mobile application).

Your use of the site (and our mobile application) and your reliance on any male or female leadership biography information on the site (and our mobile application) is solely at your own risk. No trademark or copyright infringement intended. All rights of the above male or female biography information belong to the individual(s), partnerships, corporations, author or authors, public information and/or fair Use providers, owners of all content and/or context provided in the leadership biography, and the Sir William Jackson Corporation (aka: www.sirwilliamjackson.com) does not have any product endorsement, partnership, affiliation, collaboration, agreement, association, financial agreement, financial benefit, binding contract, mutual understanding, arrangement, ownership or participation contract with any of them.

In addition, despite our consistent efforts, we can’t assure that the leadership biography information made available by us is complete, correct, accurate and/or updated. We advise our readers to research the leadership biography information themselves and not merely on the basis of this information. The views and opinions expressed in the leadership biography are those of the website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page and do not necessarily reflect or represent the views and opinions held by the Sir William Jackson Corp (aka: www.sirwilliamjackson.com). If you have a complaint about something or find your above content is being used incorrectly, PLEASE CONTACT THE SIR WILLIAM JACKSON CORPORATION PRIOR TO MAKING A COPYRIGHT CLAIM. Any infringement was not done on purpose and will be rectified to all parties satisfaction.

Human Computer:Mary Jackson

American mathematician Mary Jackson, “human computer” working at NACA, later NASA. Mary Jackson sitting, adjusting a control on an instrument.Mary Jackson working at NASA Langley.

By NASA Langley Research Center – https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/mary-jackson-at-nasa-langley-1, Public Domain, source:(commons.wikimedia.org)

NASA Langley Research Center – source:(nasa.gov)

source:(public domain)

File:Mary Jackson working 2.jpg

Created: 7 January 1980

source:(en.wikipedia.org)

Mary Winston Jackson (April 9, 1921 – February 11, 2005) was an African American mathematician and aerospace engineer at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which in 1958 was succeeded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). She worked at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, for most of her career. She started as a computer at the segregated West Area Computing division.  She took advanced engineering classes and in 1958 became NASA’s first black female engineer.

After 34 years at NASA, Jackson had earned the most senior engineering title available. She realized she could not earn further promotions without becoming a supervisor. She accepted a demotion to become a manager of both the Federal Women’s Program, in the NASA Office of Equal Opportunity Programs, and of the Affirmative Action Program. In this role, she worked to influence both the hiring and promotion of women in NASA’s science, engineering, and mathematics careers.

Jackson’s story features in the non-fiction book Hidden Figures: The Story of the African-American Women Who Helped Win the Space Race (2016). She is one of the three protagonists in Hidden Figures, the film adaptation released the same year.

The highly acclaimed December 2016 film Hidden Figures, based on the non-fiction book of the same title by Margot Lee Shetterly, follows Jackson and other female African-American mathematicians (Katherine Johnson and Dorothy Vaughan) who worked at NASA.

Jackson holding a wind tunnel model, Mary Jackson With Model at NASA Langley

NASA Langley Research Center – source:(nasa.gov)

source:(public domain)

File:Mary Jackson with a model.jpg

Created: 2 June 1977

source:(en.wikipedia.org)

Mary Jackson working at the Langley Research Center, Mary Jackson working at NASA Langley

NASA – source:(nasa.gov)

source:(public domain)

File:Mary Jackson working.jpg

Created: 2 June 1977

source:(en.wikipedia.org)

DISCLAIMER: The male and female leadership biography information provided by Sir William Jackson Corporation (“we,” “us” or “our”) on (Sir William Jackson Mall) (www.sirwilliamjackson.com) (and our mobile application) is for general information purposes only. All leadership biography information on the Site (and our mobile application) is provided in good faith, however we make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, availability or completeness of any male or female leadership biography information on the Site (or our mobile application). Under no circumstance shall we have any liability to you for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site (or our mobile application) or reliance on any male or female leadership biography information provided on the site (and our mobile application).

Your use of the site (and our mobile application) and your reliance on any male or female leadership biography information on the site (and our mobile application) is solely at your own risk. No trademark or copyright infringement intended. All rights of the above male or female biography information belong to the individual(s), partnerships, corporations, author or authors, public information and/or fair Use providers, owners of all content and/or context provided in the leadership biography, and the Sir William Jackson Corporation (aka: www.sirwilliamjackson.com) does not have any product endorsement, partnership, affiliation, collaboration, agreement, association, financial agreement, financial benefit, binding contract, mutual understanding, arrangement, ownership or participation contract with any of them.

In addition, despite our consistent efforts, we can’t assure that the leadership biography information made available by us is complete, correct, accurate and/or updated. We advise our readers to research the leadership biography information themselves and not merely on the basis of this information. The views and opinions expressed in the leadership biography are those of the website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page and do not necessarily reflect or represent the views and opinions held by the Sir William Jackson Corp (aka: www.sirwilliamjackson.com). If you have a complaint about something or find your above content is being used incorrectly, PLEASE CONTACT THE SIR WILLIAM JACKSON CORPORATION PRIOR TO MAKING A COPYRIGHT CLAIM. Any infringement was not done on purpose and will be rectified to all parties satisfaction.

Human Computer:Dorothy Vaughan

American mathematician Dorothy Vaughan, “human computer” working at NACA, later NASA.

By Beverly Golemba – http://crgis.ndc.nasa.gov/historic/File:L_Dorothy_Vaughan_M_Leslie_Hunter_R_Vivian_Adair.jpg, Public Domain, source:(commons.wikimedia.org)

source:(public domain)

File:Dorothy Vaughan.jpg

Created: Unknown date

source:(en.wikipedia.org)

source:(en.wikipedia.org)

source:(crgis.ndc.nasa.gov)

Dorothy Johnson Vaughan (September 20, 1910 – November 10, 2008) was an African American mathematician and human computer who worked for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), and NASA, at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. In 1949, she became acting supervisor of the West Area Computers, the first African-American woman to supervise a group of staff at the center.

She later was promoted officially to the position. During her 28-year career, Vaughan prepared for the introduction of machine computers in the early 1960s by teaching herself and her staff the programming language of FORTRAN; she later headed the programming section of the Analysis and Computation Division (ACD) at Langley.

Vaughan’s story features in the non-fiction book Hidden Figures: The Story of the African-American Women Who Helped Win the Space Race (2016). She is one of the three protagonists in Hidden Figures, the film adaptation released the same year. The highly acclaimed December 2016 film Hidden Figures, based on the non-fiction book of the same title by Margot Lee Shetterly, follows Vaughan and other female African-American mathematicians (Katherine Johnson and Mary Jackson) who worked at NASA.

DISCLAIMER: The male and female leadership biography information provided by Sir William Jackson Corporation (“we,” “us” or “our”) on (Sir William Jackson Mall) (www.sirwilliamjackson.com) (and our mobile application) is for general information purposes only. All leadership biography information on the Site (and our mobile application) is provided in good faith, however we make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, availability or completeness of any male or female leadership biography information on the Site (or our mobile application). Under no circumstance shall we have any liability to you for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site (or our mobile application) or reliance on any male or female leadership biography information provided on the site (and our mobile application).

Your use of the site (and our mobile application) and your reliance on any male or female leadership biography information on the site (and our mobile application) is solely at your own risk. No trademark or copyright infringement intended. All rights of the above male or female biography information belong to the individual(s), partnerships, corporations, author or authors, public information and/or fair Use providers, owners of all content and/or context provided in the leadership biography, and the Sir William Jackson Corporation (aka: www.sirwilliamjackson.com) does not have any product endorsement, partnership, affiliation, collaboration, agreement, association, financial agreement, financial benefit, binding contract, mutual understanding, arrangement, ownership or participation contract with any of them.

In addition, despite our consistent efforts, we can’t assure that the leadership biography information made available by us is complete, correct, accurate and/or updated. We advise our readers to research the leadership biography information themselves and not merely on the basis of this information. The views and opinions expressed in the leadership biography are those of the website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page and do not necessarily reflect or represent the views and opinions held by the Sir William Jackson Corp (aka: www.sirwilliamjackson.com). If you have a complaint about something or find your above content is being used incorrectly, PLEASE CONTACT THE SIR WILLIAM JACKSON CORPORATION PRIOR TO MAKING A COPYRIGHT CLAIM. Any infringement was not done on purpose and will be rectified to all parties satisfaction.

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